Furniture Terms And Their Meaning


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acanthus leaf: ornate decorative motif, found most commonly on case goods, of a stylized leaf. While the design originated in the architecture of ancient Greece, it persists as a mark of rich, opulent design.

accent colors: colors used sparingly in a color scheme, and for emphasis.

acetate: a synthetic-fiber fabric with a silky feel and luster.

acorn: a turned ornament that resembles an acorn.

Adam style: Historically 1760-1792. Four Scottish brothers, John, Robert James and William, were architects and furniture designers in the late Georgian period. The furniture they designed was intended to complement the houses they built. Their designs were delicate, yet restrained. They were greatly influenced by travels to Greece and Italy where they toured the ruins at Pompeii. The lines of their furniture were more often straight than curved and were accentuated by fluting, with ornamentation of carved wreaths, swags, urns and waves.

Adamesque: reminiscent of the style of the Adams brothers. (See Adam style.)

adjustable beds: The term adjustable bed refers to a mattress over a foundation that incorporates motors that allow the user to raise and lower the foot and head of the bed. Adjustable beds offer benefits to people with certain medical conditions, like sleep apnea or acid reflux disease, but they are also useful for those who like to watch TV or read in bed. King size adjustable beds usually consist of two twin units side-by-side and require separate fitted sheets. Adjustable beds can often be used with traditional headboards and footboards to better integrate them with traditional decors.

air chamber beds: mattress that uses pockets of air that can be inflated or deflated at will, rather than using coils or springs. This allows for two people to have different mattress firmness in one bed. The chambers are surrounded by high density foam for support and structural integrity.

American Colonial: Historically 1620-1790. American versions of formal English and European styles. Early Colonial Style could be considered a pared-down version of the Jacobean style with sturdiness and simplicity emphasized by straight legs and arms on chairs and scant carved ornamentation on other case goods. Late Colonial Style embraced the elegant curves of Queen Anne style. Decorative aspects such as cabriole legs and carvings appear, but are distilled to their essence. Styles ranged across the colonies and were derivations of styles from the colonists homelands with English influence strongest in the north, and French and Spanish more prevalent in the south.

analogous color scheme: a color scheme that consists of adjacent colors in a color wheel; for example, yellow and green.

angle bed: bed with a canopy at the head, but not the foot.

aniline leather: a translucent dye applied to leather in vats. The translucent quality allows the grain to show through, but it can also show imperfections, therefore only the best quality hides are used for this process. May also be referred to as true aniline, naked aniline, pure aniline, naked leather, unprotected leather, or natural leather.

antimacassar: An unattached covering for the arms and / or back of a piece of upholstered furniture that is intended to protect the furniture from soiling. Originally made with crochet, knit or cruel techniques, in the twentieth century manufacturers began offering them in matching upholstery fabric. The come in two styles: fitted style, to go around the end of the arm, or napkin style, to lie across the arm or the back.

antique: furniture or object that is more than a century old.

antique finish: a furniture finish that is distressed and stained to simulate the aged patina of an antique.

antiquing: the process of creating an antique finish.

appliqué: decorative ornament adhered to a surface. Can refer to pieces of fabric sewn together, or to carved wood elements attached to the surface of a case good.

apron: rail that runs between table legs and helps to support a table top.

architrave: a molding around a doorway, window or other opening.

arm chair: a chair with side supports on which the seated person may rest their arms.

armoire: large freestanding cabinet with doors traditionally used for clothes storage, but today armoires often serve to function as entertainment centers and computer/home office storage. Also known as a wardrobe.

arrow back chair: a variety of Windsor chair in which the vertical members of the back that connect the seat and the top of the back resemble arrows. These spindles are round at both ends but flatten in the middle with an arrow-like flare.

Art Deco: architectural and home furnishings style popular in the 1920's and 1930's that is characterized by streamlined silhouettes and "modern" materials, such as plastic, glass and chrome.

Art Noveau: artistic, architectural and home furnishings style of the late 19th and early 20th century, characterized by flowing lines and nature motifs.

Arts & Crafts: an aesthetic movement, with political overtones, in decorative arts that originated in England as a reaction to the impact of the industrial revolution which created inhumane working conditions and produced shoddy work. Arts & Crafts emphasized the handiwork of the artisan with simple, rectilinear lines, and exposed construction techniques. Mid-toned oak finishes that highlight the natural grain of the wood are predominate in this style. The style grew out of a rejection of the ornate, dark and heavy fashion of Victorian furniture.

attached back sofa: sofa with the back cushions attached to the body of the sofa.

Austrian shade: similar in construction to a Roman shade, Austrian shades, however, are shirred so that the hanging fabric forms a scalloped edge at the bottom.






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bachelors chest: (typically) a three-drawer low chest. May be used as a nightstand or a foyer item.

bail: inverted arch handle, usually hinged to a back plate, that is used to pull open a drawer.

balloon shade: balloon shades are similar in construction to a Roman shades, but the billowy folds along the bottom edge when the shade is raised.

baluster: the supporting post of a handrail, often with a curved, vase shape; may also refer to a furniture leg, or chair back element of a similar shape.

bamboo turning: wood that has been turned on a lathe to simulate natural bamboo.

Barcelona chair: tufted, armless chair with an X-shaped, chrome base and leather cushions. Designed by Mies Van Der Rohe, the Barcelona chair is considered to be a classic of "international style."

barley twist: a turned-wood element with encircling spirals along its length, so that a portion is raised like the threads of a screw. May be found on beds with posters, or on the legs and spindles of case goods

baroque: Historically from the early 17th century to the mid 18th century. European style of art architecture and music that features bold curving forms and elaborate ornamentation.

bas-relief: low relief carving.

Base Coat: Color that is applied to a compatible crust color to achieve the final color of a protected aniline.

batik: a fabric dyeing method that uses a wax resist (that is later removed) to create a design or pattern. Batik is often done in successive layers, with wax applied between multiple dye baths.

batting: sheets of fiber padding (cotton, wool or synthetic fiber) used in upholstery and quilt making.

Bauhaus: early to mid-20th century German school of art and design that emphasized the concept that "form follows function." Furnishings in this style are marked by clean, simple, lines that are often hard-edged.

beading: decorative molding consisting of a line of small, convex half-spheres.

bed stand: small table used beside a bed as a night stand.

bed steps: a two-step stool intended to be used beside a bed.

bedside chest: a small chest of two to three drawers intended to be used beside a bed.

bedstead: the framework of a bed that supports a mattress and box spring.

bench made: furniture that is made one step at a time, piece by piece, as opposed to furniture constructed on an assembly line.

bentwood: process by which wood or rattan is softened by steam and bent around molds into a desired shape.

bergere: chair with an exposed wooden frame. The back and seat may be upholstered or may feature loose cushions.

bi-cast: split leather with a polyurethane coating that gives it a high sheen and increases durability.

Biedermeier: German style developed in the first half of the nineteenth century, influenced by French Empire styles, and name for a fictitious "every man" character.

blendown: a mixture of down and polyester fibers used to fill upholstery cushions. Blend down is wrapped around high density foam or foam-encased springs, then encased in down-proof ticking before being covered with the upholstery fabric. Feathers may also be used with the down and polyester.

block foot: the square end of an un-tapered leg.

bolster: along cylindrical or rectangular cushion.

bombe: from French, meaning curving or bulging outward; refers to a style of chest or table that has an outward-bulging profile that curves inward at the base.

bonded leather: leather fibers combined with other materials, such as polyurethane, and textiles. The leather content of the final material may range from 20% to 90%.

bonnet top: a rounded, bonnet-shaped crown to the top of a highboy, armoire or other similar case piece. Common in 17th and 18th century designs.

book matching veneers: veneers that are aligned so that grain patterns of adjoining pieces are reflective of each other.

Boston rocker: an American rocker (19th Century) with curved seat, spindle back, and a wide top rail.

boucle: a nubby fabric comprised of uneven yarns that creates a rough appearance.

bow back: a curved upper support of a chair back that is connected to the seat with spindles. Common in Windsor style chairs.

bow front: a case piece with a convexly curved front.

box cushion: cushion with four sides connecting the top and bottom of the cushion, resembling the construction of a box. A welt frequently runs the perimeter of the top and bottom.

box pleat: a flat double pleat made by folding under the fabric on either side of it to create an inverted pleat.

box pleat skirt: an upholstery skirt with alternating high/low folds of fabric to create a dentil pattern.

bracket foot: a low, right angle foot, usually constructed with a mitered corner. May be plain, molded, or scrolled. Common on Hepplewhite and Sheraton. Also known as a console leg.

braid: a flat, woven trim used for decorative edges on upholstery to cover staples or tacks.

breakfront chest: chest, cabinet or bookcase design in which a center section projects out from the rest. Also known as a block front.

brocade: a heavy woven fabric with raised woven decoration that resembles embroidery. Used in upholstery.

broken pediment: a crown at the top of case goods that nearly forms a low-pitched triangle, but has either a void or a finial at the triangle apex.

buffet: a cupboard or "dresser" used in a dining room used to hold platters and serving dishes. They are occasionally paired with a china cabinet hutch atop.

bullion fringe: a thick fringe composed of long, twisted loops of yarn covered in gold or silver thread.

bun feet: foot in the shape of a flattened ball, often with a slender ankle above.

bureau: a low chest of drawers; commonly a dresser.

burl: a beautiful swirled pattern in the grain of a piece of wood caused by a deformity in the tree. Burled wood is often used as a veneer.

butcher block: a wood table top comprised of multiple pieces of thick strips of hardwood bonded together.

butterfly leaf: a table with self-storing leaf mechanisms.

button tufting: upholstery treatment in which buttons (usually fabric-covered) are sewn through the surface and tied down to create a tailored, sometimes undulating, surface.






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cabriole: a bowed, curved leg that tapers to a smaller foot, similar to the shape of an animal's leg.

California king: a mattress size that measures 74" x 86". This style of mattress is popular on the West coast of the United States. The additional size comes in the length creating a rectangular shape rather than the square shape of a standard king (Eastern King).

cambric: fabric attached to the underside of upholstered furniture

camelback: sofa or chair style in which the back is raised in an arch in the middle, similar to a camel's hump.

campaign chair: a style of light, foldable chair. Also known as a director's chair.

campaign furniture: portable furniture that folds, collapses or is easy to disassemble and reassemble. It often features handles and recessed hardware. Originally designed for military use, it is associated colonial style.

cane: split rattan that is used in an open weave for chair seats and backs.

canopy bed: traditionally, a bed with a fabric roof over it. Originally a symbol of rank and privilege, today the canopy may be a wrought iron or wood frame with stretchers between the posters, with or without the fabric draperies.

canted: sloping at an angle.

cantilever: horizontal projecting beam or structure anchored at one end only.

captain's bed: large, high bed featuring a number of storage drawers located below the mattress cavity.

case good: non-upholstered furniture, especially chests and cabinets.

cedar chest: a storage box with a hinged lid and lining or bottom of cedar wood, intended to ward off moths and other insects that could damage clothing or linens.

cellarette: a dining room case good which may function like a sideboard, but is designed to hold wine and liquor bottles, as well as wine glasses.

chaise: a long chair for reclining. May have one arm, two arms or no arms at all.

chaise recliner: a recliner with a fully-padded extending footrest.

chaise sectional: a sectional sofa that incorporates a built-in raised footrest.

channel back: an upholstered chair or sofa back having deep vertical grooves.

Charles of London: style of arm on upholstered furniture which is low at the back and slightly raised and curved at the front. The inside of the arm is usually well padded and curves over the edge of the arm in the front, contrasting to a flatter treatment on the outside of the arm.

checking: the appearance of wide cracks or splits in wood due to expansion and contraction of the wood with changes in humidity.

chenille: a soft thick fabric usually made of cotton or silk with a raised pile, that is used to make furnishings and clothes.

chest: a box with a hinged lid used for storage. May also be used as an abbreviation of a "chest of drawers."

chest of drawers: cabinet with drawers, usually taller than wide, used for storage.

chest-on-chest: a two-part chest of drawers with one section designed to be stacked on top of a wider chest of drawers.

chesterfield: overstuffed couch or sofa with upholstered ends and no exposed wood. Back and arms are usually of one continuous curve.

cheval mirror: free-standing full-length mirror that may be tilted between its vertical supports.

chiffonier: a narrow chest of drawers or lingerie chest.

china cabinet: often used in dining rooms, china cabinets generally consist of an upper portion with glass-doored display case, and lower enclosed cabinet for storage.

Chinese Chippendale: a style of furniture established in the mid-18th century England. Innovations by the English designer Thomas Chippendale expanded upon Chinese-inspired motifs. The style, overall, is more elaborate than true Chinese designs and is distinguished by open fretwork, some with faux bamboo carvings, and lacquer finishes.

chinoiserie: a style in found in art, ceramics, textiles and furniture design that reflects an occidental (European) interpretation of traditional Chinese motifs.

chintz: printed and glazed cotton fabric, often in bright colors.

Chippendale: Historically 1740-1779. Thomas Chippendale was a furniture and cabinet maker in the Georgia era. His name became synonymous with his style, in part because he published a widely-copied book of designs. His early designs often employed cabriole legs with claw and ball feet. In later work legs were straight. He carved embellishments in a wide variety of motifs: lion paws, acorns, acanthus leaves, roses, dolphins and scrolls. Fretwork was another common element in his designs.

cigar arm: a narrow rolled arm that slopes downward as it approaches the front edge of a sofa, loveseat, chair or settee.

claw and ball foot: a carved foot at the base of a leg that looks like a an animal paw or a bird talon grasping a ball. Often found on cabriole legs.

club foot: thick and substantial foot with a slightly pointed toe, usually found on cabriole legs.

cocktail table: short-legged table, usually positioned in front of a sofa or loveseat. Also known as a coffee table.

coffee table: short-legged table, usually positioned in front of a sofa or loveseat. Also known as a cocktail table.

colonial: In America, this style dominated from the earliest settlements to the Revolution of 1776. Here as elsewhere it represents styles that are rooted in mother countries but adapted to the materials and uses of the colonies, primarily Africa, India, the Americas, and the Caribbean.

color ways: multiple variations of color combinations in which a fabric pattern is available.

color wheel: a circular arrangement of the colors of the spectrum. The primary colors, red, yellow and blue, form a triangle within the circle with their complimentary secondary colors (green for red, purple for yellow and orange for blue) on the opposite side.

combing: decorative paint technique in which wet glaze is removed with a comb, or notched tool, to reveal the base coat underneath.

commode: a moveable stand or cupboard, historically used to house chamber pots.

complimentary colors: two colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel; i.e.. red and green, purple and yellow, blue and orange.

console: narrow table designed to sit against a wall for support; often used in entryways. May also mean a free-standing storage cabinet for housing a TV, stereo or other electronic equipment

contour top: a variety of mattress pillow top. similar to a summit top. Contour tops employ a gusseted, knife edge construction and are attached with a distinct separation between the top and the mattress. What differentiates a contour top is the use of a zoned fill (foam of different densities for specific areas of the body) in the mattress top.

convoluted foam: a layer of foam used in mattress construction that often overlays the springs in an innerspring mattress. It resembles the bottom of an egg crate with peaks and valleys between two and three inches tall. This layer of foam is good for relieving muscle tension as the peaks and valleys have a gentle massaging effect.

cool colors: generally, colors that are associated with ice, the sky and water: blues, purples and greens. It should be noted, however, that colors that are generally cool can have warm qualities, for example a deep olive green can have yellow overtones and be considered a warm green.

corner block: reinforcing blocks of wood bolted to the interior corners of furniture for increased strength and stability.

cornice: horizontal molding at the top of a wall or case good; can also mean a decorative molding at the top of a window that hides curtain fixtures

corrected grain leather: leather that has been buffed and coated with pigments or other finishes to hide imperfections. Also known as protected leather.

couch: sofa or daybed.

credenza: a buffet, sideboard or bookcase, typically with a functional top surface near table height.

Crocking: Transferring of color or finish from leather to other materials caused by rubbing or abrasion.

cuddler: a large, frequently armless, component of a sectional that typically connects two additional components together at a corner.

curio cabinet: a display case with a glass front and sides, and without enclosed cabinet space. Most modern curio cabinets incorporate interior lighting, glass shelves, and a mirrored back.






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damask: a light fabric, often silk, that depicts patterns, florals or other designs in the weave with a tone-on-tone or two-tone effect. Use for draperies or upholstery.

davenport: a large sofa.

daybed: originally, a term applied to extended chairs for lounging, for example, a chaise lounge. Today the term is applied to twin-sized beds that double as sofa-like seating with the bed frame consisting of a headboard, footboard and a higher "board" along one side that serves as the "sofa" back.

deck: the surface directly under the seat cushions on an upholstered piece of furniture.

decoupage: a surface decoration of glued-down, cut-out (often printed) paper.

demilune: French term meaning "shaped like a crescent or half-moon". A demilune table top is in the shape of a half a circle and is intended to be used against a wall, as in an entry way.

denim: a coarse twill fabric made with cotton.

dentil molding: decorative molding of rectangular blocks evenly spaced. So named for its resemblance to teeth.

dhurrie: a flat weave rug from India, often made from cotton fibers, but may be silk on occasion.

directoire: French style coinciding with the Directoiry government form 1795 to 1799. As the style of the revolutionary government, it is smaller in scale and is less ostentatious, replacing regal themes with symbols of liberty: oak boughs, liberty caps, pikes and clasped bands. The style bridged the Neo-classicism of Louis the XVI and the Empire style of Napoleon's reign with the introduction of Roman martial motifs such as spears and drums.

distressed: a surface that has been artificially aged with sanding, punctures or gouges.

double dresser: two sets of drawers side-by-side, used for the storage of clothing in a bedroom. A double dresser is usually wider than it is tall and a mirror is frequently placed above.

dovetail: construction technique of interlocking wedges used on wood furniture, frequently in drawer construction, to increase strength and stability. See also English dovetail and French dovetail.

doweling: a construction technique in which wood corners are reinforced with glued dowels through the joints.

down: fine, soft feathers from the breast areas of ducks and geese; when used in seat and pillow cushions the effect is luxuriously soft.

down-proof ticking: a tightly-woven, inner lining of a cushion that prevents the migration of tiny feathers to a cushion's exterior.

drawer glide: an interlocking track that help ensures a drawer is guiding along a straight path when it is pulled out or reseated in its station. Glides may be mounted underneath a drawer or mounted on the sides and can be made of wood, metal or nylon; metal and nylon glides may incorporate small wheels or ball bearings.

dresser: a set of drawers that is wider than it is tall, used for the storage of clothing in a bedroom. A mirror is usually placed above a dresser.

dressmaker skirt: a skirt that extends from base of the cushion to the floor on upholstered furniture. Also known as a waterfall skirt.

drop-leaf table: a table with hinged leaves that are unfolded for table extension.

Drum Dyed: A dying process in which leather is immersed in dye and tumbled in a rotating drum allowing maximum dye penetration.

drum table: a cylindrical table with storage below. Often used as an end table or side table.

dust panels: linings between drawers in case goods that prevents the migration of dust, thus keeping clothing and other stored items cleaner.






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Eames: Charles and Ray Eames were a mid-20th Century husband and wife design team who together created many innovative designs for home furnishings in plywood and other materials. They are best known for their chair designs which are considered mid-century modern in style.

ebonized: wood that is stained black to resemble ebony.

egg and dart molding: a relief motif of ovals and the curved negative space they create when lined in a row.

eight-way hand-tied: construction technique used in upholstery in which individual seat springs are tied to the frame with twine running vertically, horizontally and diagonally.

Elizabethan: historically, 1558 to 1603. Style that emerged during the reign of Elizabeth I in England. Characterized by large scale, sever forms, and heavy carvings.

Embossing: A process of altering the natural grain of the leather by using etching, engraving or electortyped plates or rollers creating a very unifor grain pattern. Embossing may be done to disguise defects or to create exciting designs.

Empire style: historically, 1804 to 1815. Neoclassical style dictated by the French Emperor Napoleon. Based on imperial forms from Greece, Rome, and Egypt it was designed to draw parallels between Napoleon's realm and the great ancient empires. Furniture was consciously majestic, made of rich woods and metals, and decorated with emblems, including bees, crowns, laurel leaves, mythological figures, and the letter N.

enclosed coil mattress: mattress with wire springs that are individually wrapped in fabric and sewn to adjoining coils. This means that when you roll over there is very little transfer of movement or bouncing.

end matching: the process of placing veneers end-to-end to create a continuous pattern.

engineered wood: any variety of wood product that is made of wood fibers, strands or veneers adhered together with a bonding agent (glue). Particle board, medium density fiberboard (MDF), and wood laminates are all engineered wood products.

English dovetail: wood furniture constriction technique consisting of a series of stacked, tapered, interlocking wedges.

English Regency: Historically 1793-1830. Growing out of the late Georgian period, English Regency style reflected the influences of Chinese and Egyptian design. The style emphasized simplicity and functionality in its lines with ornamentation relative to the more ornate styles of previous eras.

entertainment armoire: an armoire fitted to house a TV, other electronic and related entertainment media.

entertainment wall: a TV and media storage system that creates the visual effect of built-in cabinetry with different combinations of storage components.

escutcheon: decorative plate, commonly made of brass, surrounding a keyhole on case goods.

etagere: tall shelves that are open on the sides and back.

Euro top: a variety of pillow top mattress with a box cushion construction.






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fauteuil: upholstered arm chair with open sides.

faux bois: French term for simulated wood.

Federal style: Historically 1780-1820. Style that emerged in the US after the revolutionary war that was similar to Sheraton, Hipplewhite and Adams with simplified forms. Classicism had an influence as the young country considered itself the rightful heir to the republic of ancient Rome. Scantly used decorative motifs include acanthus leaves, pineapples, scrolls and pilasters.

feng shui: Chinese philosophy of design which seeks to balance the yin and yang energies in a space through the arrangement of objects.

fiddle back: a chair with a fiddle-shaped back splat.

finial: a terminating ornament, such a the top of a post, that is carved or turned on a lathe.

finish: protective coating applied to wood furniture; may also refer to the combination of the protective coating and the color effect applied to wood or metal.

Finishing: Steps taken after the dying treatment such as rolling, pigmented spraying, lacquering, antiquing, waxing, buffing, glazing, waterproofing and flame-proofing in order to provide more abrasion and stain resistance and/or a more even surface coloration.

firm (mattress): a mattress with a firm feel and strong support with a small amount comfort padding.

flip top table: table is distinguished by a table top that can be doubled over on itself. As it is unfolded it is either rotated or shifted on the table base for support.

footboard: vertical panel or structure situated at the foot of a bed frame.

Foulard: A light weight twill fabric of cotton and/or silk fibers; small scale designs may be printed on the fabric

four-way matching: combined use of book matching and end matching veneers to create a larger pattern.

French dovetail: wood furniture constriction technique consisting of one long grove that fits with an interlocking wedge.

French provincial: style characteristic of 17th and 18th century France. May also be referred to as European country.

fret work: decorative trim on wood furniture that is characterized by carved interlaced or pierced designs in the wood.

fruitwood: generic term for wood from trees such as cherry and apple.

full grain leather: leather that has not been altered beyond hair removal.

futon: a Japanese mattress of cotton batting, used either on the floor or on a folding frame.






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gate leg table: a variety of drop-leaf table in which the extended leaf is supported by a leg that folds into the base when the leaf is not in use.

Georgian style: Historically 1714-1795. Following Queen Anne style, it is distinguished by more ornate carvings, the absence of straight lines and the use of casters on chair legs.

gild: to cover with gold leaf.

gimp: a flat decorative trim or braid that conceals upholstery fastening points, such as staples or tacks.

glazed leather: aniline leather run through high-pressure glass or steel rollers to add luster and polish a hide.

gothic style: Historically from 1150 to 1500. European style derived from the cathedral architecture. Heavy, large pieces were generously carved in architectural motifs. Chests banded with decorative wrought iron, large trestle tables, and such symbols of status as "beds of estate" and X-framed chairs are characteristic.

graining: decorative paint technique that simulates wood grain.

GTX: A chemical with water and stain resistant properties similar to Scotchgard. TM

Guilloche: Ornamentation motif consisting of interlacing ribbons, typically used as a border molding in architecture or on furniture, it is also employed on enameled objects as a metal engraving over which translucent enamel is applied.






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hand: the aesthetic feel or tactile quality of fabric.

Hand-Antiqued: The hand application of a darker color over a lighter color creating a dramatic highlight.

hardwood: wood from a deciduous tree. Maple, walnut, mahogany and oak are examples of hardwoods frequently used in furniture construction.

headboard: vertical panel or structure situated at the head of a bed frame.

Hepplewhite: Historically 1770-1786. A later contemporary of Thomas Chippendale, George Hepplewhite's name also became synonymous with the style of furniture he popularized. His lighter, more delicate style consisted of slender fluted legs with spade feet, delicate carvings of classical motifs, shield or lyre backs on chairs and damask silks and satins for upholstery.

Hide: The skin of an animal.

high boy: a tall chest of drawers supported by four legs.

hue: the tint of a color; i.e. red, blue, green, yellow.

hutch: an upper cabinet with open shelves or doors that is placed atop a buffet, desk or other case good.






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Ikat: Traditional weaving style found in many cultures including south and central Asia as well as south and central America. Ikats are made with resist dyeing techniques (similar to tie dye) on warp or weft threads before a piece of cloth is woven. The traditional patterns produced by the weavings have been reinterpreted by modern textile designers as bold graphic prints with feathery edges.

inlay: design formed of contrasting woods, grains, metal, tortoiseshell, mother of pearl, or other material inserted to be flush with the furniture surface.

intarsia: a decorative inlay pattern, particularly referring to wood mosaics.

international style: Historically from 1920 to 1939. Minimalist style that grew out of Germany's Bauhaus, with such practitioners as Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Simple lines and an absence of decoration are its hallmarks. New materials, such as chrome and glass, along with factory production, signify its departure from earlier furniture traditions. The international aspect means that the furnishings are devoid of regional characteristics and stress functionalism. International style is closely tied to modernist style.






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jabot: vertical elements in a drapery swag

Jacobean: Historically 1603-1649. Late renaissance English style originating in the reign of King James I and continuing to the reign of King Charles I. It is characterized by large heavy pieces with rectangular lines and ornamented by low-relief Italianate carving. The common use of upholstery typifies the robust and comfortable style.

jacquard: fabric with an intricately woven pattern. Damask and brocade are both fabrics produced on a jacquard loom.

Japanning: a black enamel lacquer applied in several layers that creates a glossy finish.

jardinière: a large decorative plant stand.






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kick-pleat skirt: a straight upholstery skirt that with smaller skirts placed behind the skirt vents at the corners and other skirt divisions. The smaller skirt may be straight or shirred.

kilim: a flat woven rug of middle eastern origin (Turkey and Iran)

kiln-dry: the process of slow-drying lumber in a kiln to prevent warping, cracking and checking.

klismos: ancient Greek chair style with splayed saber legs, and a curved, shoulder-height back. Depicted on ancient Greek pottery, the form was revived in Directoire, Empire and Regency styles.

knife edge pillow: a pillow or cushion constructed of two pieces of fabric sewn flatly together at the perimeter. A decorative cord may be included in the seam. Batting is inserted between the pieces of fabric.






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lacquer: a multi-layered varnish that is polished to a high sheen and has a durable, hard surface.

ladder-back: a chair with horizontal supports across the back, resembling a ladder.

laminate: the process of bonding or gluing together several layers. May also refer to the final product of the process, often with a decorative surface of paper or fabric covered with melamine resin.

landscape mirror: a mirror intended to be used above a case good, such as a dresser or sideboard.

Lawson arms: a low profile rolled arm that is of a modest scale.

leather match: furniture upholstered with a combination of leather and vinyl. The vinyl is died to match the leather and is typically used on the sides and back. Leather is reserved for the cushions or "everywhere the body touches."

leg table: a table, dining or otherwise, that is supported by four legs.

leveler: adjustable component on the foot of furniture that can compensate for an uneven floor and thus level the piece.

light bridge: a component of an entertainment wall that connects two media piers (or other wall components) over a TV. Light bridges usually incorporate lighting, a shelf and a matching back panel.

Liming: The chemical process of removing hair from the rawhide.

linen fold: a carved motif that looks like a scroll of linen.

lingerie chest: a tall, narrow chest of drawers intended to store lingerie.

linseed oil: a drying oil produced from flax seeds, used in furniture finishes as a protective sealant.

loose back sofa: sofa with the same number of back cushions as seat cushions, but are not attached to the sofa body.

Louis XIV style: Historically 1643 - 1723. French baroque furniture style with resplendent with formal grandeur. Considered more masculine in style than Louis XV or Louis XVI, it features more modest, rather than exaggerated, curves. Common motifs include acanthus leaves, putti, caryatids and masks. In true baroque fashion, forms are symmetrical with twisting, intertwined forms.

Louis XV style: Historically 1723 - 1774. Rich and ornate French rococo style, typified by cabriole legs with carved knees and scroll feet, as well as bombe chests and cabinets. Heavy carving, inlays, lacquer and gilt often ornamented pieces while brocade, velvets and tapestry were frequently used for upholstery.

Louis XVI style: Historically 1774-1792. Neoclassical style in the reign of French King Louis XVI. In contrast to the excesses of rococo and baroque styles, the lines of Louis XVI are more geometric and rectilinear. Ornamentation was more restrained with classical architecture motifs supplanting opulent carvings of fruit and flowers.

loveseat: a small sofa or double chair that seats two people.

low profile foundation: a thin version of a box spring that offsets very thick mattresses in a bed frame.

lowboy: English low chest or table with drawers.






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Machine Antiqued: The machine application of a darker color over a lighter color creating a dramatic highlight.

marbling: faux painting technique to simulate the look of marble.

marquetry: intricate close-fitting inlays of wood, ivory, mother-of-pearl or metal as a surface decoration. Often executed as a veneer.

master chest: similar to a chest on chest, a master chest usually incorporates a doored cabinet.

media pier: a component of an entertainment wall that flanks a TV and provides storage and / or display areas.

micro suede: a variety of microfiber fabric that displays a distinct nap that makes it look and feel like suede leather.

microfiber: fabric made from extremely thin synthetic fibers. It is appreciated for its soft hand, durability and stain resistance.

mid-century modern: a design style that emerged in the mid 20th century that is characterized by clean simple lines, be they geometric or organic. The movement embraced modern technology and the space age, but without kitsch. It smoothed the edges of modernism to make a democratic, and very livable, style.

Milling: Process in which hides are tumbled in a drum to soften the hand or enhance the grain.

mission style: a late 19th, early 20th century style that is considered the American version of the English Arts and Crafts movement. Simple, rectilinear lines, exposed construction techniques and mid-toned oak finishes that show off the natural grain of the wood are dominate characteristics of this style. American mission style added elements of Spanish mission style and was notably influenced by Gustav Stickley and Frank Lloyd Wright.

modernism: Historically from 1890 through the mid-20th century. Modernism is a philosophy of design that encompasses several styles including Arts and Crafts, Art Noveau, Art Deco, International and Mid-Century Modern. A unifying theme of these diverse styles is a rejection of traditional forms. Each sub style appeared to be a radical departure from the established forms and styles of their respective eras.

modular furniture: furniture that may be rearranged in to multiple configurations. Entertainment walls and some sectionals are examples of furniture that employ a modular approach.

moire: silky fabric, such as a silk, rayon or taffeta, with a wavy surface pattern.

monochromatic: color scheme of one hue in a variety of values (shades).

mop head fringe: a thick fringe composed of long, twisted loops of yarn resembling the head of a mop.

motif: a thematic element of design, in carvings, inlay, fabric pattern or other surface decoration.

motion furniture: furniture that can be used in multiple positions or that allows movement; includes sofas, chairs and loveseats that rock, recline, swivel, or glide. May also refer to occasional tables that incorporate swivels or rollers and are intended to be paired with motion upholstery.






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nail head trim: the decorative use of a line of tacks at fabric / leather attachment points on upholstered goods.

Naked Leather: Pure Aniline.

nap: a soft or fuzzy surface on fabric or leather.

Nature's Signatures: Naturally occuring characteristics on leather. Bites, stings, wrinkle and cuts.

neoclassical style: Revivals of interest in ancient Greek, Roman, and Egyptian themes, which occurred during the Renaissance, Adam, and Empire eras, and especially in the late 18th century, when appetites for it were whetted by archeological discoveries.

nesting table: concentrically sized tables, usually three, so that the smaller sizes may be tucked under the larger.

night stand: a small table used beside a bed, often incorporating drawers. In recent years the term has become more generalized and used in reference to its function rather than construction.

Nubuk Aniline: Top grain leather that has the "nap" effect cause by removal of the epidermis.






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occasional furniture: smaller furniture items, such as side tables and chests, that are used as accents.

ogee: with the shape of an elongated S.

Oriental rug: rug comprised of knotted tufts, often made of wool, with complex, intricate patterns. Originating in the Middle East or Asia

ottoman: an upholstered low seat or cushioned footstool.

overlay: a decorative surface that is appliquéd or veneered, rather than inlayed.






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paisley: a multicolored woven or printed design. Though the design motif originated in India as a stylized plant form (mango), it was popularized in the west by jacquard weavers in the town of Paisley, Scotland.

palette: the range of colors used in a color scheme

panel bed: a bed frame with a panel of wood or other material for the headboard and foot board. Panel beds are not flanked by vertical posts at the corners.

Parsons chair: chair style intended to be used with a table, dining or otherwise, that features a high, rectangular, upholstered back and an upholstered seat.

Parsons table: rectangular table with straight legs at the corners. Named for the Parsons School of Design.

patina: wear and oxidation that occur to a finish (metal or wood) as it ages.

Patina: A luster that develops on pure anilines and nubuks over time and with use.

pedestal table: a table that features a center pedestal support, instead of four legs.

pediment: a decorative crown, sometimes a low-pitched triangle, at the top of case goods.

Pembroke table: a drop-leaf table in the Georgian style of Thomas Sheraton.

Phyfe, Duncan: Historically 1795-1848. Scottish-born American cabinet maker who helped to popularized empire and neoclassical styles in the states. His prolific New York cabinet shop employed over 100 carvers and cabinet makers. His designs were distinguished by elegant lines, perfect proportions, reeded legs and classical motifs.

pickled finish: a rubbed-through, white-washed finish applied over previously stained and finished wood.

picture rail: molding affixed to a wall for the purpose of supporting artwork.

pie crust table: a small table with carved or molded scalloped edges around the table top perimeter.

Pigment Finish: A process of coloring and coating the leather.

pigmented leather: leather with coloration applied to the top surface, as opposed to dyed. This process hides imperfections and adds durability.

pilaster: surface ornament resembling a column. Often paired with a pediment.

pile: cut loops of yarn forming surface with upright tufts. May refer to fabric or carpet. Velvet, ultra suede and corduroy are examples of fabrics with a pile.

pillow top: cushion filled with batting attached to a sofa seat or arm, to the top of a mattress.

platform beds: a bed that does not require a box spring. Instead of slats, platform beds in corporate a solid surface for the mattress to rest on. Sometimes this surface extends a few inches beyond the dimensions of the mattress.

pleated arm: arm of upholstered sofa, loveseat, or chair with the front plane covered by fabric continuing from the inside of the arm; the excess fabric on the front plane is pleated in a arch.

plinth base: box base for upholstered furniture, in lieu of legs.

plisspe: fabric with a puckered finish.

plush (mattress): a mattress with a softer feel and some comfort padding over a base with strong support.

Polishing: Removal of the grain, scars, and blemishes from hides.

Portiere: Fabric or curtain hung in a doorway either as an alternative to a door or a decorative element.

poster bed: a bed frame with tall posts, often capped with finials, at the corners of the headboard and footboard.

primary colors: red, blue and yellow. Combinations of the primary colors create all other colors.

primitives: hand-crafted furnishings or art created by untrained artisans.

Protected Aniline: Leather which as been Aniline dyed and then slightly pigmented to ensure color consistency and resistance to liquids. (Semi-Aniline).

pub back: a soft, gathered and billowing cushions attached to the back of an upholstered sofa, chair or loveseat.

pull-up leather: full grain leather that is treated with oil or wax so that it develops an aged patina over time. More common on traditional styles, it is also know as oiled or waxed leather.

Pure Aniline: Any leather that receives all its color from Aniline dyes and has no topical applications. Nature's Signatures are visible which are cherished unique parts of the hide.






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quarter-sawn: the lengthwise sawing of logs into quarters to produce boards with distinctive grain patterns. Particularly common in mission style furniture.

Queen Anne style: Historically from 1702-1715. A style distinguished by cabriole legs, single curved splats in chair backs and scalloped shell ornaments. Upholstery in this style frequently uses brocades.






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ragging or rag-rolling: decorative painting technique in which a glaze is applied over a base color in an uneven manner to add depth and texture.

rail: horizontal bar of wood or metal supporting and tying two ends of a piece of furniture together. For example, on a bed the rails tie the headboard and footboard together and help support the mattress. The horizontal front of a sofa or loveseat may also be referred to as a rail.

rattan: the strong, yet pliable stem from a variety of climbing palm, in the genus calamus, used as framing material for wicker furniture.

recliner: arm chair that reclines and extends a built-in foot rest.

reeding: decorative carving or element that consists of vertical, convex, semi-circular groves.

refectory table: a long, narrow table with straight, heavy legs, originally used in monastic dining halls.

regency style: Historically 1811 - 1820. British neoclassical style contemporary with directorie and empire styles in France. Like its French counterparts, regency style looked to ancient Rome and Greece for inspiration in form and decorative motifs.

reproduction: copy of an antique design.

return: a component that attaches to a desk to make an L-shaped work station.

rococo: extremely ornate art, furniture and architecture style originating in early 18th century France. Common Rococo motifs include scrolls, foliage and animal motifs.

rolled arms: arms on upholstered seating that curve outward into a rounded form, extending horizontally beyond the supporting post.

rubbed finish: wood polished with abrasives and oils for a durable finish with a low sheen.

Rya rug: a shag rug made in Sweden






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saber leg: a gently curving and tapered leg style often found in neo classical and federal style furniture.

saddlebag arms: exaggerated pillow top style cushion attached to the top of the arm on an upholstered piece.

Sauvage: A two-tone effect that adds depth and character to the leather.

scatter back sofa: sofa with more back cushions than seat cushions.

secondary colors: green, purple and orange; they are called secondary because they are made from combinations of the primary colors, red, blue and yellow.

secretary desk: desk with a drop-down door writing service and drawers below and occasionally a display case stacked above.

sectional: upholstered seating consisting of two or more sections arranged together (and sometimes joined through brackets) to create a larger piece. Frequently sectionals incorporate a directional change, forming the shape (when seen from above) of an "L" or "U".

semanier: lingerie chest with seven drawers.

Semi-Aniline: Protected Aniline.

semi-aniline leather: aniline dyed leather with a layer of matching pigment added to improve color consistency and add protection.

semi-attached back sofa: sofa construction in which the back cushions are attached at the top but loose at the bottom. Often, a hidden zipper in the lower portion allows access to the cushion for fluffing and the repositioning of fill materials.

serpentine: carved or appliqued ornamentation consisting of reflective "S"-shaped curves.

serpentine front: an undulating front surface on a piece of furniture. More commonly found on case goods, a sofa or loveseat may also be constructed with serpentine fronts.

server: a table and storage piece, used in dining rooms, that is relatively shallow and intended to be used against a wall. Traditionally, food is stored on top prior to being brought to the table. Drawers may be used to store silverware, linens, or other dining room necessities. While similar to a sideboard, a server does not contain cabinets.

settee: small sofa or loveseat with exposed, wooden legs

Shaker style: The Shakers were a religious sect in that grew from the Quaker religion around the time of the revolutionary war, in the state of New York. The Calvinistic bent of the group led them to develop a furniture style devoid of ornamentation, without carvings, inlays or veneers. Construction details, such as exposed dovetails, became prominent in Shaker designs. Shakers were also responsible for several design innovations such as swivel chairs and tilting chairs.

shelter back sofa: sofa with squared-off arms and back at the same height.

Sheraton: Historically 1780-1806. Thomas Sheraton was furniture designer in the late Georgian era, influenced by Louis XVI and French Empire designs. His innovative designs included the first twin beds, the roll-top desks and kidney-shaped tables. Like Chippendale, his styles were popularized through his published designs, but Sheraton was not known to have constructed any furniture himself. Hallmarks of Sheraton's designs included delicate straight lines and pieces ornamented by inlay and marquetry, and carvings of ferns, shells, floral swags and urns.

shield back: the back of a chair which is shaped like a shield.

Shoji screen: originally, a Japanese sliding door constructed of lacquered wood and rice paper. Today the form is reinterpreted as a folding screen of the same materials, used as a room divider.

side chair: a chair with a seat, back and legs, but no arms. Originally designed to sit against a wall when not in use, today they frequently accompany dining tables.

sideboard: table with a wide drawer at the center flanked by drawers or cupboards on the sides and made to be used against a dining room wall for storing and serving food.

sinuous spring: construction element of some upholstered furniture that uses a running s-shaped spring along the length of the deck (seat support).

skirt: fabric running along the lower perimeter of upholstered furniture, designed to hide the legs.

slat: a strip of wood that spans the interior space of a bed frame to support a mattress. May also refer to a narrow strips of wood or metal used in a case good's design.

slat back chair: a chair with a back consisting of one or more wide, flat vertical supports.

sleigh bed: bed that resembles the shape of a horse-drawn sleigh with scroll-shaped headboard and footboard. The headboard is slightly higher than the footboard.

slipcover: a removable, fitted fabric cover for upholstered furniture.

slipper chair: a high-backed upholstered chair with short legs.

snuggler: an oversized upholstered chair. Also frequently called "a chair and a half."

sofa table: a long, narrow table designed to sit against the back of a sofa. They are typically taller than cocktail or end tables.

softwood: wood from a coniferous (evergreen) tree. Pine, cedar and redwood are considered softwoods.

spade foot: a trapezoidal tapered foot.

splat: the center portion of a chair back that support the spine of the person sitting in the chair.

split foundation: a box spring that is divided into two components and designed to be used in pair under a single mattress. Common for king size mattresses, split foundations may also be available for queen mattresses at your local retailer.

split leather: the lower layers of a hide that are removed to create a uniform thickness on a top grain hide. These lower layers are also processed and treated with a protective sealant for use in upholstery.

stain (wood finish): pigment that penetrates the surface of wood, as opposed to sitting on the surface, used to alter the color of the wood. After staining, the wood surface is usually protected with a finish of oil, wax, lacquer, or shellac.

Stickley: Gustav Stickley pioneered the American version of the Arts & Crafts movement in the early 20th century. He founded his furniture company with his brothers, John George and Leopold, who eventually broke with Gustav and formed their own, more profitable company, producing furniture based on from Gustav's original designs.

stop: wood or nylon component of a case good that prevents a drawer from being pulled out too far.

stretcher: stabilizing element connecting the legs of a chair or table somewhat below the seat of a chair or the top of the table.

suite: a group of furniture with common design motifs intended for use in the same room.

summit top: a variety of pillow top mattress with a knife edge cushion construction.

Suzani: Traditional embroidery produced in Uzbekistan and Central Asia that was part of a young woman's dowry. Floral medallions and stylized foliage are common motifs on Suzanis. The needle work patterns have been reinterpreted by modern textile designers as bold and graphic prints.






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T-cushion: cushion of an upholstered sofa, loveseat, or chair on which the arms are set back from the front edge; the cushion extends from the from edge of the seat to the front of the arm. The resulting outline is in the shape of a letter "T".

tall boy: a set of chests that are stacked one on top of the other. Frequently the lower one consists of a large three or four drawer unit and the upper of a taller piece with smaller drawers, often crowned with a cornice and pediment. Also know as a chest-on-chest.

tambour: thin strips of wood applied to a pliable back to create a flexible door.

tambour desk: roll-top desk that employs tambours in its roll-top mechanism.

terrazzo: hard-finished floor made of marble chips set in mortar and polished.

tête-à-tête: a small bench with an s-shaped back that crosses the seat that allows two people to sit facing each other. Also known as a courting bench.

theater seating: modular reclining chairs that can be joined at the arms, either flush, or in an arch and are designed for optimal screen viewing in a home theater.

theater sofa: a large sofa curved in an arch when viewed from above. Designed for use in a home theater, a theater sofa is intended to provide all of the individuals sitting on it a good view of the home theater screen.

three-over-three: a sofa with three back cushions and three seat cushions

ticking: a heavy, strong fabric used to cover mattresses. Traditional ticking features a white ground with indigo stripes. Present-day use of the traditional ticking pattern is more common as an upholstery or drapery accent fabric.

tight back: upholstery with a padded back directly over the frame of the piece, without additional back cushions.

tight seat: an upholstered piece on which the fabric covering the seat is attached directly to the frame and does not have a removable seat cushion.

tilt top table: a table with a top that can be tilted to a vertical position so that it may be stored close to a wall. The top is laid horizontal for regular use.

toile: a white or off-white fabric printed with one color, commonly red or black, depicting classical or pastoral scenes.

Top Coat: Synthetic transparent polyurethane resins applied as a clear protective coating to make leather more resistant. May be gloss or matte depending on type of leather.

top grain leather: leather with the outermost layers of the hide left in tact. Generally considered high quality.

top stitching: a single or double row of stitching close to the seam or edge on the outer side of the fabric.

torchiere: a floor lamp that provides soft, indirect lighting by guiding light upward from a reflective bowl or inverted cone.

transitional: a furniture style in which design elements are toned down so that the piece may fit with a traditional or more contemporary décor.

travertine: a variety of stone used as a surface top in furniture. It varies in color from cream to beige and taupe.

trestle table: a table with a base that consists of two sets of legs connected by a horizontal beam.

triple dresser: three or more sets of drawers side-by-side, used for the storage of clothing in a bedroom. A triple dresser is usually wider than it is tall and a mirror is frequently placed above.

Trompe l'oeil: painting style that means "fool the eye" in French. Two-dimensional surfaces are painted to look as if three dimensional objects are resting on them.

tumbling: a process in which tanned hides are placed in drums with heat and water and tumbled to a desired softness. Also call "milling".

tung oil: a drying oil produced from nuts of the tung tree, used in furniture finishes as a protective sealant.

turning: a furniture element that was shaped with the use of a lathe.

tuxedo arms: an upholstery style with straight-lines, or slightly flared interior edges; the arm height is usually the same height as the back, however scatter-back cushions may extend higher.

twill: a sturdy weave of fabric that is distinguished by diagonal parallel ribs in the surface.

two-over-two: a sofa with two back cushions and two seat cushions






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up light: a light fixture that directs light toward the ceiling.






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valance: drapery treatment that runs across the top of a window.

value, color: the relative lightness or darkness of a color.

varnish: a hard and lustrous transparent coating.

vegetable tanning: the process of making leather using tannins obtained from bark, wood, or other plants and trees.

veneer: a surface overlay of a thin sheet of wood. The underlying material may be solid wood, or a composite wood product.

Victorian: Historically from 1837 to 1901. The style is named for England's Queen Victoria. Derivative of rococo and Louis XV style, it is distinguished by exaggerated curves (like the camelback sofa), ornate carvings and dark finishes.

visco-elastic memory foam: Originally developed by NASA to compensate for the G forces astronauts endure during takeoff, visco-elastic foam is a very popular choice for mattresses. Memory foam conforms to your body in response to body heat but returns to its original shape as you move. These temperature and pressure sensitive properties make it the favorite of many.

vitrine: display cabinet with glass doors.






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wainscoting: The lower part of an interior wall when finished in a material different from that of the upper part

wall-away recliner: a recliner that shifts the body forward as it reclines, instead of leaning the body back. Wall-away recliners require less rear clearance space and may therefore be placed closer to a wall.

wardrobe: tall, upright cabinet with doors. Traditionally used for storing clothes on hangers or in drawers, today wardrobes are refitted to serve as entertainment centers or computer workstations.

warm colors: generally, colors that are associated with fire, heat and the sun: reds, yellows and oranges. It should be noted, however, that colors that are generally warm can have cool qualities, for example a dark burgundy-red can have blue overtones and be considered a cool red.

water chamber beds: mattress that uses pockets of water that can be inflated or deflated at will, rather than using coils or springs. This allows for two people to have different mattress firmness in one bed. The chambers are surrounded by high density foam for support and structural integrity.

waterfall back: two or more vertical layers of gathered and billowing cushions attached to the back of an upholstered sofa, chair or loveseat.

waterfall skirt: on a sofa loveseat or chair, a skirt that extends from base of the cushion to the floor. Also know as a dressmaker skirt.

webbing: the foundation of a seat on upholstered furniture. Composed of interwoven strips of jute or synthetic material that is two to three inches wide, the strips are attached to the frame to create a hammock-like suspension that is covered with padding and fabric for seat cushions to rest on.

Welsh cupboard: an open-shelved hutch atop a base cabinet with drawers or doors, used in dining rooms, as a buffet.

welt: fabric-covered cord used as a trim in the seams of upholstery or toss pillows. Also known as cording or piping.

William and Mary: Historically, 1685-1725. The English interpretation of European baroque style that emerged during the reign of William III and Mary II. Elaborate turned legs and spindles are characteristic of this style. Detailed inlays and marquetry are common in this style with carvings depicting acanthus leaves, flowers, shells and seaweed.

Windsor chair: a style of chair that features turned spindles along the back, often with a carved saddle seat, turned and angled legs, and turned stretchers between the legs. They were originally made by wheelwrights instead of cabinet makers and were named for the town of Windsor, England where the style originated. As many as six distinct styles of Windsor chairs emerged when the style was carried to the Americas.

wingback chair: a high-backed, upholstered easy chair with panels or wings projecting forward from the sides of the back and curving downward to meet the roll arms.